Public University of Navarre



Academic year: 2023/2024 | Previous academic years:  2022/2023  |  2021/2022  |  2020/2021  |  2019/2020 
Bachelor's degree in Telecommunications Engineering at the Universidad Pública de Navarra
Course code: 253502 Subject title: FUNDAMENTALS OF WIRELESS NETWORKS
Credits: 6 Type of subject: Mandatory Year: 3 Period: 1º S
Department: Ingeniería Eléctrica, Electrónica y de Comunicación
Lecturers:
BERUETE DIAZ, MIGUEL (Resp)   [Mentoring ]

Partes de este texto:

 

Module/Subject matter

Module: Specific common training in Telecommunication Systems.

Matter: Wired and Wireless Networks.

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Contents

"Fundamentals of Wireless Networks", starts with a review of the basic properties and parameters of antennas in transmission and reception such as radiation diagrams, directivity, gain, efficiency, impedance, polarization, radiation regions, antenna noise temperature, etc.

The types of antennas currently existing and their frequency ranges and associated applications will be descriptively displayed.

Subsequently, the necessary concepts will be formulated to design terrestrial radio links with the necessary concepts of propagation (reflection, refraction and diffraction in objects that intervene in the radio link), Fresnel zones, propagation in complex environments, radio spectrum, regulation and rules.

The course will continue with the basic operating principles of satellite communications systems. In particular, the physical principles that govern the orbits, their forms, periods, Kepler's laws, etc. Topologies and special characteristics of satellite communications systems, both terrestrial and space equipment are analysed.

Subsequently, the student will be introduced to the most current wireless communications systems; specifically in the technologies based on the IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi), 802.16 (WiMax) and similar (Bluetooth, ZigBee, UWB, RFID) standards that have achieved high levels of implementation and commercial penetration, exceeding the scope of applications and services for which they were initially conceived. The current status of wireless communications networks will be reviewed, and the necessary aspects (techniques, access protocols, etc.) will be analysed for the design and deployment of this type of networks, requirements (bit rate, coverage, consumption, QoS, etc.)

Finally, the subject will end with a chapter dedicated to mobile cellular communications in which the operation and the problems associated with mobile communication systems will be described in their most general conception. It is noteworthy that the universalization that these systems have reached in society during the last decades, and their constant technological evolution, requires that this chapter of the subject be very dynamic and permanently adapted to constant changes. Issues such as mobile communication propagation, channel characterization, fading, cell sizing and resource reuse, coverage / capacity relationships will be discussed and finished with a review of the old 2G systems (GSM / GPRS) and an introduction to the current 3G (UMTS / HSPA) and 4G (LTE) systems, 5G system and future 6G.

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General proficiencies

G2 Teamwork.

G3 Autonomous Learning.

G4 Efficiency in oral and written communication with English language skills.

G5 Efficiency in the management of information resources.

G6 Ethical commitment and sustainability.

G7 Ability to conceive, design, implement and operate systems and services in the field of ICT.

CB2. That students know how to apply their knowledge to their work or vocation in a professional manner and possess the skills that are usually demonstrated through the elaboration and defence of arguments and the resolution of problems within their area of study.

CB3. That students have the ability to gather and interpret relevant data (usually within their area of study) to make judgments that include a consideration on relevant issues of a social, scientific or ethical nature.

CB4. That students can transmit information, ideas, problems and solutions to a specialized and non-specialized public.

CB5. That the students have developed those learning skills necessary to undertake further studies with a high degree of autonomy.

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Specific proficiencies

E1. Ability to build, operate and manage telecommunications networks, services, processes and applications, understood as systems for capturing, transporting, representing, processing, storing, managing and presenting multimedia information, from the point of view of transmission systems.

E2. Ability to apply the techniques on which telecommunication networks, services and applications are based, both in fixed and mobile environments, personal, local or long distance, with different bandwidths, including telephony, broadcasting, television and data, from the point of view of view of the transmission systems.

E3. Ability to analyse components and their specifications for wireless communication systems.

E4. Capacity for the selection of circuits, subsystems and radiofrequency systems, microwaves, radio broadcasting, radio links and radio-determination.

E5 Capacity for the selection of antennas, equipment and transmission systems, propagation of unguided waves, by electromagnetic, radiofrequency and the corresponding management of the radioelectric space and frequency allocation.

More specifically, the subject covers the following aspects that are considered basic for the curriculum of a Graduate in Telecommunications Technology Engineering.

  • Describe and explain the function and main parameters of the basic components and subsystems of radio communication systems.
  • Explain the operation, architecture, topology and services of the different types of communication networks via radio (mobile, satellite ...) from the point of view of the lower levels of the OSI model, particularly the physical level.
  • Explain the main degradation mechanisms that affect the propagation of radio signals, as well as the techniques that allow mitigating them.
  • Explain the concepts of wireless network deployment, its problems and its solutions.
  • Expose to a specialized audience the design of a simple network via radio, defending the adopted solutions (topology, components, etc.) with technical and market reasoning.
  • Understand the fundamental parameters of the antennas such as radiation diagram, directivity, gain, efficiency, polarization, impedance, effective area, etc. Friis formula in radio links and radar. Antenna temperature.
  • Understand the mechanism of propagation. Understand the special conditions of the different radiation zones. Assimilate the reciprocity theorem.
  • Identify the main regulations applicable to the use of the radioelectric spectrum and the entities that regulate it at a national and international level.
  • Understand manuals and specifications of components, equipment and systems in English. Search information in books and on-line resources in English.
  • Work in groups effectively, identifying the objectives of the group and planning the work to achieve them, as well as assuming the responsibilities and commitments associated with the assigned task.
  • Use available resources and services to execute simple information searches. Classify and synthesize the information collected. Value intellectual property and properly cite the sources.
  • Plan the recommended tasks in such a way that they are carried out in accordance with the guidelines set by the teacher and in the foreseen time. Evaluate the degree of compliance with the learning objectives and detect problems in the educational progress itself.
  • Pose and solve problems from open situations with incomplete requirements.

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Learning outcomes

When the training is completed, the student is able to:

R1. Describe and explain the function and main parameters of the basic components and subsystems of radio communication systems.

R2. Explain the operation, architecture, topology and services of the different types of communication networks via radio (mobile, satellite ...) from the point of view of the lower levels of the OSI model, particularly the physical level.

R3. Explain the main degradation mechanisms that affect the propagation of radio signals, as well as the techniques that allow mitigating them.

R4. Identify the main multiple access techniques used in wireless networks and determine the most appropriate for a given situation.

R5. Explain the concepts of wireless network deployment, its problems and its solutions.

R6. Make designs of simple wireless networks especially access networks.

R7. Exposing to a specialized audience the design of a simple network via radio, defending the adopted solutions (topology, components, etc.) with technical and market reasoning.

R8. Identify the main regulations applicable to the use of the radio spectrum and the entities that regulate it at a national and international level.

R9. Handle with manuals and specifications of components, equipment and systems in English. Search information in books and on-line resources in English.

R10. Work in a group effectively, identifying the objectives of the group and planning the work to achieve them, as well as assuming the responsibilities and commitments associated with the assigned task.

R11. Use available resources and services to execute simple information searches. Classify and synthesize the information collected. Value intellectual property and properly cite the sources.

R12. Plan the recommended tasks in such a way that they are carried out in accordance with the guidelines set by the teacher and in the foreseen time. Evaluate the degree of compliance with the learning objectives and detect problems in the educational progress itself.

R13. Pose and solve problems from open situations with incomplete requirements.

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Methodology

Expositive/participative classes will be more participative than expositive. Theoretical classes will be recorded in advance and students will be required to watch videos before attending classes. In this way, pure theoretical classes will be substituted to participative classes where details will be stressed and doubts will be solved. This method will allow to employ more hours to exercise solving in the classroom.

Methodology / Activity Attendance Hours Non-attendance Hours
A-1 Expositive / participative classes 51 15 
A-2 Practices 6  
A-3 Discussion, groupings, tutoring groups 3  
A-4 Elaboration of work   15
A-5 Material readings 2 5
A-6 Individual study   45
A-7 Exams, evaluation tests 6  
A-8 Individual tutorials 2  
Total 70 80
Total 150

 

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Evaluation

 

Learning
outcome
Assessment
activity
Weight (%) It allows
test resit
Minimum
required grade
R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8 Written ordinary exam that covers the acquired concepts 80% Yes 4 out of 10
R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6, R7, R8 Written extraordinary exam that covers the concepts acquired in all the subject Students who want to improve their final grade can take the exam 80% No 4 out of 10
R9, R10, R11, R12, R13 Group work on a wireless communications project* 20% No No
R9, R10, R12 Laboratory practices* 0% No No

*Group work and laboratory practices cannot be validated from previous years.

 

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Agenda

Chapter 0: Introduction to the course on Wireless Network Fundamentals.

Contents:

0.1. Professor introduction.

0.2. Subject introduction.

0.2.1. General objectives of the subject.

0.2.2. Relation of the subject with other subjects in the Bachelor degree.

0.2.3. Agenda.

0.2.4. Subject planning.

0.2.5. Evaluation criteria.

0.2.6. Bibliography.

0.3. History of Electromagnetism and Telecommunications

0.4. Introduction to Wireless Communication Systems

Duration: 2 hours.

 

Chapter 1: Basic parameters of Antennas.

Contents:

1.1. Introduction, antenna definition.

1.2. Transmitting antenna parameters.

1.2.1. Impedance.

1.2.2. Fundamental parameters of radiation patterns.

1.2.3. Radiation intensity.

1.2.4. Directivity, gain and efficiency.

1.2.5. Bandwidth.

1.2.6. Polarization.

1.3. Receiving antenna parameters.

1.3.1. Impedance.

1.3.2. Effective area.

1.4. Friis transmission equation.

1.5. Reciprocity.

1.6. Antenna noise temperature.

1.7. Maxwell equations and general expression for the radiated fields.

1.8. Radiation regions (Fresnel and Fraunhofer regions).

1.9. Antenna types.

1.10. Exercises resolution.

Duration: 18 hours

 

Chapter 2: Terrestrial Radio Links.

Contents:

2.1. Free space and terrestrial environment propagation.

2.1.1. Radioelectric spectrum.

2.1.2. Methods and mechanisms of atmosphere propagation.

2.1.3. Type of waves in the atmosphere.

2.2. Fundamentals of radio links and radio propagation.

2.2.1. Introduction.

2.2.2. Flat Earth reflection model.

2.2.3. Troposphere influence on propagation.

2.2.4. Curved Earth model.

2.2.5. Diffraction by obstacles.

2.2.6. Propagation by diffraction.

2.2.7. Attenuation and other effects of propagation in the atmosphere.

2.3. Terrestrial radio links.

2.3.1. Radio link planning. Antenna height calculation.

2.3.2. Diversity techniques.

2.3.3. Basic configurations: block diagram.

2.4. Propagation in complex environments.

2.4.1. Introduction.

2.4.2. Empirical models for the mean value of propagation losses.

2.4.3. Statistical characterization of propagation losses.

2.4.4. Multichannel fast fading and diversity.

2.5. Exercises resolution.

Duration: 20 hours

 

Chapter 3: Satellite Communication Systems

Contents:

3.1. Introduction to satellite communications.

3.1.1. Introduction.

3.1.2. Historical perspective.

3.1.3. Space Services.

3.1.4. Features of a satellite link.

3.1.5. Configuration of a satellite communication system.

3.1.6. Organizations and operators.

3.2. Orbits and related issues.

3.2.1. Orbital mechanics.

3.2.2. Coordinate systems.

3.2.3. Orbit examples.

3.2.4. Orbit disturbances.

3.2.5. Eclipses and sun interferences.

3.2.6. Comparisons between types of orbits.

3.3. Design of satellite communication systems.

3.3.1. Frequencies.

3.3.1. Coverage footprint.

3.3.3. Power and noise profiles.

3.3.4. Space segment.

3.3.5. Ground segment.

3.4. Exercises resolution.

Duration: 9 hours

 

Chapter 4: Wireless Communications Systems WPAN, WLAN y WMAN

Contents:

4.1. WPAN standards (Wireless Personal Area Networks).

4.1.1. Bluetooth standard.

4.1.2. Zigbee standard (IEEE 802.15.4).

4.1.3. RFID standard.

4.1.4. NFC standard.

4.1.5. UWB standard.

4.2. WLAN standards (Wireless Local Area Networks).

4.2.1. 802.11 standard

4.3. WMAN standards (Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks).

4.3.1. 802.16 standard

4.4. Future trends in wireless networks.

Duration: 1 hour

 

Chapter 5: Cellular Communications Systems

Contents:

5.1. Principles of cellular mobile communications.

5.2. Propagation in mobile communications.

5.2.1. Channel characterization.

5.2.2. Propagation loss.

5.2.3. Empirical models for propagation losses.

5.2.4. Shadowing.

5.2.5. Short term fading.

5.3. Cellular Systems.

5.3.1. Cellular frequency reuse and capacity.

5.3.2. Cellular geometry study.

5.3.3. Co-channel interference.

5.3.4. Capacity increase.

5.3.5. Call forwarding (Hand-Off).

5.4. GSM/GPRS standards (2G)

5.5. UMTS/HSPA/LTE standards (3G/4G).

5.6. 5G technology.

5.7. On the verge of 6G, future of mobile networks.

Duration: 1 hour

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Experimental practice program

Experimental practice program

Practice 1: Diffraction by Obstacles

P1.1. Fresnel zones.

P1.2. Diffraction over a single isolated obstacle: knife edge.

Duration: 2 hours

 

Practice 2: Estimation of Coverage and Planning of DTT Reception in the Pamplona basin

P2.1. Objectives.

P2.2. What is it Radio Mobile?

P2.3. Installation and configuration of Radio Mobile.

P2.4. Practice development: Importing the map.

P2.5. Practice development: Configuration of our network.

P2.6. Practice development: Network Analysis.

P2.7. Exercises

Duration: 3 hours

 

Practice 3: Practical radiolink parameters and performance

P3.1. Equipment that composes a radiolink

P3.2. Performance of the radiolink at 38 GHz installed in the roof of Los Tejos building.

P3.3. Deployment of a 23 GHz radiolink in the laboratory.

P3.4. Performance of the 23 GHz radiolink depending of its parameters (ATPC and ACM)

Duration: 1 hour

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Bibliography

Access the bibliography that your professor has requested from the Library.


Bibliography

Basic Bibliography:

  1. Á. Cardama, L. Jofre, J. M. Rius, J. Romeu, S. Blanch and M. Ferrando, "Antenas", Editorial UPC, 2ª edición, 2002.
  2. C. A. Balanis, "Antenna Theory. Analysis and Design", 4th Edition, Wiley, 2016.
  3. José María Hernando Rábanos, José Manuel Riera Salís, Luis Mendo Tomás, "Transmisión por Radio", Editorial Universitaria Ramón Areces, 7ª edición, Madrid 2013
  4. ITU-R recommendations (International Telecommunications Union, Radiocommunication sector).
  5. Gerard Maral and Michel Bousquet, "Satellite Communications Systems: Systems, Techniques and Technology", 5th Edition, Wiley, 2009.
  6. Theodore S. Rappaport. "Wireless Communications", 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall PTR, 2001.
  7. Yang Xiao and Yi Pan, "Emerging Wireless LANs, Wireless PANs, and Wireless MANs2", John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
  8. Kaveh Pahlavan and Prashant Krishnamurthy. "Principles of Wireless Networks: A Unified Approach", Prentice-Hall, 2002.
  9. P. Mohana Shankar, "Introduction to wireless systems", Wiley. 2002.
  10. William C. Y. Lee, "Mobile Communications. Design Fundamentals", 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons. 1993.

 

Additional bibliography:

  1. R. E. Collin, "Antennas and Radiowave propagation", McGraw-Hill, 1985.
  2. William H. Hyat and John A. Back, "Engineering Electromagnetics", 8th Edition, Ed Mc Graw-Hill, 2011.
  3. Gerard Barue, "Microwave Engineering: Land and Space Radiocommunications", Ed. Wiley, 2008.
  4. Roger L. Freeman, "Radio System Design for Telecommunications", Ed. Wiley, 1997.
  5. R. C. Johnson and H. Jasik, "Antenna Engineering Handbook", 3rd Edition, Mc¿Graw-Hill Professional Publishing, 1992.
  6. J. D. Kraus, "Antennas", 2nd Edition, Mac-Graw-Hill, 1988.
  7. S. Drabowitch, A. Papiernik, H. Griffiths, J. Encinas, and B. L. Smith, "Modern Antennas", Chapman & hall, 1998.
  8. R. S. Elliot, "Antenna Theory and Design, Revised Edition", Wiley, 2003.
  9. Sophocles J. Orfanidis, "Electromagnetics Waves and Antennas", available online at: http://www.ece.rutgers.edu/~orfanidi/ewa/
  10. Dennis Roddy, "Satellite Communications", 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill. 1995.
  11. K. Fazel and S. Kaiser, "Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systems", 2nd Edition, Wiley, 2008.
  12. Kaveh Pahlavan and Prashant Krishnamurthy. "Wireless Information Networks", Wiley, 2005.
  13. R.A. Dayem. "Mobile Data and Wireless LAN technologies", Prentice Hall, 1997.
  14. David Roldán. "Comunicaciones inalámbricas: un enfoque aplicado", Editorial Ra-Ma, 2004.
  15. H. Vincent Poor and Gregory W. Wornell, editors, "Wireless Communications: Signal Processing Perspectives", Prentice-Hall PTR, 1998.
  16. http://www.ieee802.org/
  17. G. Riva, F. Vatalaro, F. Davide and M. Alcañiz, "Ambient Intelligence", IOS Press, 2005.
  18. http://www.emergingcommunication.com
  19. Harri Holma and Antti Toskala, "WCDMA for UMTS", 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons. 2004.

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Languages

The subject is taught in English language. All the material used (theory presentations, practice scripts, software used in practices, etc.) and most of the bibliography are in English language.

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Location

The theoretical and the problem classes will be taught in the assigned classroom.

The practices will be taught in the "Luis Mercader" Laboratory of Antennas and Microwaves.

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