Public University of Navarre

Castellano | Academic year: 2024/2025 | Previous academic years:  2023/2024  |  2022/2023  |  2021/2022  |  2020/2021 
Double degree in Agrifood Engineering and Rural Environment and Innovation of Food Processes and Products from Navarre Public University at the Universidad Pública de Navarra
Course code: 503207 Subject title: HYDRAULICS AND FARM MACHINERY
Credits: 6 Type of subject: Mandatory Year: 2 Period: 2º S
Department: Ingeniería

Partes de este texto:


Module/Subject matter

Basics of rural engineering



  • To know fluid properties and to determine forces exerted by the fluid at rest.
  • To apply the main equations related to fluid in motion both in pipelines and in open channels.
  • To select engines and farm machines using technical, socio-economic, environmental and safety at work criteria.


General proficiencies

  • CT5: Proficiency in working in multidisciplinary and multicultural teams
  • CT8: Proficiency in working by projects
  • CB3: Students have the ability to collect and interpret relevant data (generally within their field of study) in order to make judgments which include reflection on relevant issues of social, scientific or ethical nature.
  • CB4: Students can convey information, ideas, problems and solutions to specialized or non-specialized audiences.


Specific proficiencies

  • CG2. Sound knowledge of physical problems, technologies, machinery, and water and energetic systems, of the limits imposed by budget and construction regulations, of the relationships between facilities or buildings and agricultural exploitations, agri-food industries and spaces related to gardening and landscaping with their social and environmental surroundings, and of the need to relate all these with human necessities and environmental preservation.
  • CE15: Proficiency in knowing, understanding and applying rural engineering principles: structures calculation and construction, hydraulic, farm engines and machinery, electrical engineering and technical projects.


Learning outcomes

  • R1_To know the fluid properties and to calculate the forces exerted by them at rest.
  • R2_To apply the main equations of fluid both in open channels and in pipes.
  • R3_To know the basics of centrifugal pumps.
  • R4_To learn how to choose engines and agricultural machines applying technical, socioeconomic, environmental and safety criteria.

    ENAEE Learning outcomes:

    ENAEE-5: The ability to apply their knowledge and understanding to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems using appropriate methods
    ENAEE-9: Understanding of the different methods and ability to apply them.
    ENAEE-17: Work effectively both individually and as a team.



Methodology - Activity Attendance Self-study
A-1 Exposition/Participative Classes  30  53
A-2 Practical classes  16  12
A-3 Cooperative learning activities  2  2
A-4 Group projects  9  23
A-5 Individual practice and study time    
A-6 Tutorials    
A-7 Exams and evaluation activities  3  
Total  60  90




Weight (%) It allows
test resit
required grade
R1, R2, R3 Written exam 27,5% YES Through written exam 5
R4 Written exam 27,5% YES Through written exam 5
R1, R2, R3,R4 Individual or group works to solve practical problems analyzing the obtained results 30% YES Through written exam 5
R1, R2, R3,R4 Short project to solve the formulated problem analyzing the obtained results 15% NO  


If the student did not get the minimum grade to weigh in any of the activities, the grade of the subject would be 4.9 out of 10 at most (fail). 





Module: Hydraulics



Unit 1. The hydraulic engineering in a rural framework

Introduction.Engineering, hydraulic engineering. The hydraulic engineering in a rural framework, an overview.

Unit 2. Physical magnitudes. Definition and properties of fluids

Introduction. Magnitudes, dimensions, units and conversion factors. Dimensionless numbers in hydraulics. Fluid, liquid, gas. Density and specific weight. Pressure. Surface forces and mass forces. Viscosity.

Unit 3. Hydrostatics

Introduction. The hydrostatic equation. Forces on immersed surfaces. Devices to measure pressure intensity based on hydrostatics' principles

Unit 4. Fundamentals of fluid in motion

Introduction. Liquid at rest and in motion. Classifying various types of fluid flow: flow through pipelines and flow in open channels; steady and unsteady flow; uniform and non-uniform flow; real and ideal flow; one-dimensional, bidimensional and three-dimensional flow; laminar and turbulent flow; reynolds number.

Unit 5. Main equations for fluid in motion

Introduction.Principles and laws governing the hydraulics. The continuity equation. The energy equation: the Bernoulli equation; energy in a fluid cross-section; energy head line and piezometric head line, flow power.

Unit 6. Flow through pipelines

Introduction. Determination of head loss in pipes: Equations to calculate head loss. Darcy-Weisbach equation; friction factor; minor head loss. Simple pipelines. Characteristic curve of pipelines. Complex pipelines. Parallel and branching pipelines. Fundamentals of ramified network pipelines

Unit 7. Pumps and pumping system

Introduction. Types of pumps. Head generated by a pump. Head- Discharge curve. Cavitation. NPSH curves. Pumps in parallel and pumps in series

Unti 8. Flow in open channels

Introduction. Fundamentals of flow in open channels. Main equations governing the hydraulics of open channels: specific energy and critical depth; the Manning equation. Flow transitions. Hydraulic jump.



Practice 1. Flow clasificación . Energy equation in open channels and pipes.

Practice 2. Hydrometry. Venturimeter. Weirs. Velocy meter.

Practice 3. Head losses in pipelines. Lineal and localized head losses

Practice 4. Centrifugal pumps.Characteristics curves.

Practice 5. Open cannel flow. Geometric features of a channel. Manning`s equation.


Module: Farm machines

Unit 1. Traction and power machines: Tractors and motor cultivators.
Standard ISO 3339-0: 1986. Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry -- Classification and terminology -- Part 0: Classification system and classification

Unit 2. Tractor components
Internal combustion engines. Fuels and atmospheric emissions. Power supply system. Wheels. Hitches for the implements. Brakes. Steering.

Unit 3. Transmissions
Clutch. Types and operation. Gearbox. Automatic gearbox. Differential. Differential lock. Final reduction. Types of powered front axles. Front differential. Independent shafts.

Unit 4. Dynamic and energetic balance
Breaking power tests. Characteristic curves. Iso-consumption curves. Drawbar power tests. Energetic balance. Other tractor tests. Tractor static and dynamic study.

Unit 5. Tractor selection technical criteria
Tractor selection technical criteria. Tractor selection economic criteria. Other socio-economic criteria.

Unit 6. Drive and distribution mechanisms of the farm machines
Tractor-implement relationship. Hydraulic, mechanical and electronic drives. Fertiliser distribution units. Seeds distribution units. Distribution elements of sprayers.

Unit 7. Common and generic risks of farm machines
Common risks of farm machines. Generic risks of farm machines. Prevention and protection. Accident rates in the management of farm machinery. Accidents during coupling and uncoupling of the implements. Accidents at the power take-off. Protective structures on the tractors.


Short project

Students must carry out a study that relates both parts of the subject.


Experimental practice program


Práctica 1*. Clasificación de flujos. Ecuación de la energía.

Práctica 2. Hidrometría.

Práctica 3. Pérdidas de carga en tuberías.

Práctica 4*. Bombas centrífugas.

Práctica 5. Corrientes libres: ecuación de Manning, resalto hidráulico.


Máquinas agrícolas

Práctica 6. Partes del motor y diagrama circular

Práctica 7*. Transmisiones

Práctica 8. Resbalamiento y autoguiado

Práctica 9*. Curvas características del motor.


*Prácticas esenciales para adquirir las competencias de la asignatura.



Access the bibliography that your professor has requested from the Library.

Márquez Delgado, Luis. Tractores agrícolas: tecnología y utilización. BLAKE & HELSEY Editores, Madrid, 2012.

Hamill, L. 2011. Understanding Hydraulics. Palgrave MacMillan Ed. 3th Edition.

Borgman, D.E. 2008. Tractors. How to operate, maintain, and improve the performance of your tractor. John Deere Ed. 4th Edition.

Hydraulics. The fundamentals of service and theory of operation for hydraulic systems in off-road vehicles, trucks, and buses. 2011. John Deere Ed. 8th Edition.






Aulario. Department of Projects and Rural Enginnering.